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CHEM1902 - Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are described below. These outcomes are built from the learning activities in lectures, tutorials, laboratory and independent study. Important attributes are:
  • the ability to apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problem and create solutions: you will be expected to demonstrate these outcomes on problems drawn from the material presented in the course and to novel situations.
  • the ability to evaluate your own performance and development and to recognize gaps in your knowledge: keep a portfolio of your progress using the 'self assessment tool'
The ways in which these outcomes are assessed are described in detail in the unit outline. When reading this, you should note that the laboratory course is self-contained: material from the lab course is assessed in the lab course and is not re-assessed in the tutorial quizzes or examination.
  • Generic Attributes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problems, create solutions, evaluate opinions, innovate and improve current practices
    •  gather, evaluate and deploy information relevant to a scientific problem
    •  disseminate new knowledge and engage in debate about scientific issues
    •  recognize the rapid and sometimes major changes in scientific knowledge and technology, and to value the importance of continual growth in knowledge and skills
    •  use a range of computer software packages in the process of gathering, processing and disseminating scientific knowledge
    •  make value judgements about the reliability and relevance of information in a scientific context
    •  evaluate your own performance and development, to recognize gaps in knowledge and acquire new knowledge independently
    •  set achievable and realistic goals and monitor and evaluate progress towards these goals
    •  appreciate sustainability and the impact of science within the broader economic, environmental and socio-cultural context
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work independently and as part of a team and to take individual responsibility with a group for developing and achieving goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
    •  recognize the importance of safety and risk management and compliance with safety procedures
    •  manipulative equations and measurements with due regard for significant figures and unit conventions
  • Laboratory Skills
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  perform careful and safe experiments
    •  accurately report scientific observations
    •  work as a professional scientist with due regard for personal safety and for the safety of those around you
    •  interpret observations in terms of chemical models with appropriate use of chemical equations and calculations
    •  perform calculations containing concentrations, moles and masses
    •  choose and use appropriate glassware for a given task
    •  choose and use balances accurately and appropriately
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work as a member of a team and to take individual responsibility within a group for developing and achieving group goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
  • Representations of Molecular Structure
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  determine the geometry and hybridization state for each carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atom in a molecule
    •  interconvert the structural and stick formula and stick representations of a molecule
    •  convert a stick structure into a molecular formula
    •  recognize and name the functional groups in a molecule
  • Alkanes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  name simple alkanes using IUPAC nomenclature
    •  draw structures from IUPAC names
    •  distinguish between conformational and configurational isomers of alkanes
  • Structural Determination
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the basic principles of a mass spectrometer
    •  identify the molecular ion, base peak and daughter ions in a mass spectrum
    •  derive structural information from a fragmentation pattern in a mass spectrum
    •  recognize the isotope distribution characteristic or bromine and chlorine containing compounds in a mass spectrum
    •  use the information that IR and UV-visible spectra provide to aid in the determination of structures
    •  explain the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy
    •  identify the number and type of carbon environments in a molecule and predict the number of signals in a 13C NMR spectrum
    •  identify the number and type of hydrogen environments in a molecule and predict the the number of signals in a 1H NMR spectrum
    •  predict the number of hydrogen atoms in each environment from the size of the signals in a 1H NMR spectrum
    •  predict the number of hydrogen atoms on neighbouring atoms from the multiplicity of the signals in a 1H NMR spectrum
    •  determine the structure of a simple compound from spectroscopic data
  • Alkenes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify alkene diastereomers as E or Z
    •  identify the electrophiles and nucleophiles in a reaction
    •  predict the major products obtained from the reaction of alkenes with electrophiles (using Markovnikov's rule)
    •  draw structures from IUPAC names
  • Alkynes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  predict the major products obtained from the reaction of alkynes with electrophiles (using Markovnikov's rule)
  • Aromatic Compounds
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the special stability of benzene and why it does not react like an alkene
    •  explain what is required for a compound to be aromatic and apply Hückel's rule to rings containing heteroatoms
    •  draw a mechanism for an SEAr reaction
    •  predict the products for the reaction of benzene with several different electrophiles
    •  recognise the important role of aromatic compounds in biology and medicine
  • Organic Mechanisms and Molecular Orbitals
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  classify the type of reaction occurring
    •  identify nucleophiles and electrophiles
    •  recognize acidic and basic centres
    •  distinguish oxidation from reduction
    •  use curly arrows to represent the movement of electrons during reactions
  • Alcohols
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify and name simple alcohols, diols, triols and phenols
    •  explain why phenols are more acidic than alcohols
    •  predict the products of oxidation of an alcohol and give the reagents required to perform this reaction
    •  explain the nucleophilicity and basicity of alcohols
    •  predict the products of the elimination of alcohols, using Zaitsev's rule, and give the reagents required to perform this reaction
    •  explain the mechanism of dehydration
  • Amines
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  recognise and name amines
    •  predict the reactivity of amines as bases and nucleophiles
    •  appreciate the role played by amines in nature
  • Stereochemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify stereogenic centres in organic molecules
    •  distinguish between different types of isomers, including enantiomers and diastereomers
    •  use (R)- and (S)- descriptors to describe enantiomers and identify if a compouind has (R)- or (S)- stereochemistry
    •  convert between stereo structures and Fischer projections
    •  determine the maximum number of isomers possible in a compound with more than one stereogenic centre
    •  identify meso compounds and when to expect them
  • Organic Halogen Compounds
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify and name organic halogen compounds
    •  predict the products of the elimination of alkyl halides, using Zaitsev's rule, and give the reagents required to perform this reaction
    •  Identify the products of nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides
    •  determine the nucleophile required to react with an alkyl halide to give a specified product
    •  appreciate that nucleophilic substitution follows two mechanisms and the factors that effect each mechanism
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify and name simple ketones and aldehydes
    •  explain the mechanism of nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl
    •  predict the products of oxidation and reduction of aldehydes and ketones and give the reagents required to perform these reactions
    •  identify a Grignard Reagent and know how to make it
    •  predict products from Grignard addition to aldehydes, ketones and carbon dioxide
    •  recognize an acetal.
  • Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify and name simple carboxylic acids
    •  give the products from the reaction of a carboxylic acid with a base and recognize that this is a reversible reaction
    •  predict the product of the reduction of a carboxylic acid and give the reagents required to perform this reaction
    •  recognize the role of long chain fatty acids in soap
    •  identify carboxylic acid derivatives as esters, amides, acid halides and acid anhydrides
    •  give the products obtained upon hydrolysis of these carboxylic acid derivatives
    •  recognize that acid halides are more reactive than esters which are, in turn, more reactive than amides
    •  predict the products that will be formed when a carboxylic acid derivative is treated with an alcohol or amine
    •  give the reagents required for the interconversion of carboxylic acid derivatives
    •  list the physical properties of fats and oils
    •  identify the repeating structural unit of a condensation polymer given the monomers
    •  recognise proteins as polymers of amino acids
    •  explain how primary structure relates to a covalently bonded sequence of amino acids
    •  recognize that secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures result from interactions such as hydrogen bonds within and between protein chains
  • Synthetic Strategies
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  appreciate the challenge of synthesis
    •  work forwards and backwards to devise a synthetic route
    •  use the reactions of functional groups to interconvert them and devise ways of making new compounds
  • Strong Acids and Bases
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  list common acids and bases
    •  define acids and bases according to the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry models
    •  apply equilibria to acids and bases
    •  use the definitions of pH and Kw to quantify the acidity and basicity of aqueous solutions
  • Weak Acids and Bases
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the difference between a strong and weak acid and the difference between a strong and weak base in terms of the percentage dissociation in solution
    •  explain the increase in pKa values for dissocation of the protons in a polyprotic acid
  • Calculations Involving pKa
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  use pKw, pKa and pKb to calculate the pH of a solution containing a weak acid or base
    •  use the increase in pKa values for dissocation of the protons in a polyprotic acid to perform calculations
    •  be able to explain what buffers are and how they work
    •  be able to calculate the pH of a buffer system and be able to design a buffer with a required pH
    •  use titration curves to characterize acids and bases, using the pH at the equivalence and half-equivalence points
    •  design and perform titration experiments to obtain pKa values with appropriate choice of indicator
  • Periodic Trends
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  recognize trends in the Periodic Table and the correlation between the trends in atomic radii, ionization energies and electronegativity
    •  explain the origin of these trends in terms of the electronic structure of the atoms
    •  predict reactivity based on these trends, particularly how the acid, base or amphoteric character of an element's oxide and hydroxide are related to its position in the Periodic Table
  • Intermolecular Forces and Phase Behaviour
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  list the types of intermolecular forces and their relative strengths
    •  identify the intermolecular forces that exist for particular compounds
    •  rank melting and boiling points for related compounds on the basis of these forces
  • Physical States and Phase Diagrams
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify characteristics of physical states
    •  label phase diagrams and relate phase diagrams to changes in state with temperature and pressure
    •  explain the anomalous behaviour of water using its phase diagram
    •  define supercritical fluids and the behaviour of compounds above the critical point
    •  interpret simple two-component phase diagrams
  • Entropy
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define entropy in terms of the tendency of energy to spread out
    •  predict how entropy changes with the physical state, the temperature, the size of the molecule and the complexity of a molecule
    •  predict whether entropy increases or decreases for simple physical and chemical changes, especially for changes in physical state
    •  apply entropy concept qualitatively to predict the direction of phase changes
  • Allotropes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define allotropes and give examples of common elements with allotropes
  • Crystal Structures
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define and give examples of alloys
    •  show how close packing of spheres can lead to hexagonal or cubic close packing
    •  identify the major metal structures - cubic close packed, hexagonal close packed, body centred cubic and simple cubic
    •  list the coordination number, packing efficiency and number of atoms in the unit cell of each of these packing types
    •  identify unit cells for cubic packing
    •  relate the unit cell contents and the stoichiometry
    •  calculate the packing efficiency in cubic unit cells
    •  rationalize the structure of simple ionic solids in terms of filling of the holes in the close packed structures
  • Solubility Equilibrium
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify what determines solubility in terms of bonding forces
    •  construct Ksp from the chemical equation for dissolution
    •  calculate solubility from Ksp values for salts according to their formula
    •  use the ionic product, Q, to predict whether dissolution or precipitation will occur
    •  apply the common ion effect qualititatively and quantitatively using Ksp and Q
  • Metal Complexes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define complex, ligand and coordinate bond
    •  recognize that hydrolysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions gives rise to acidic solutions and predict their relative acidity
    •  recognize chelate ligands, their donor atoms and the stability of their complexes
    •  name coordination complexes and compounds using IUPAC nomenclature
    •  identify isomers including structural, geometrical and optical isomerism for tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral complexes
    •  write down the form of the stability constant, Kstab, for a complex
    •  recognize and predict how the formation of stable complexes can increase the apparent solubility of salts by combining Ksp and Kstab expressions
  • Coordination Chemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  work out the oxidation state of a transition metal in a complex
    •  work out the number of d electrons on a transition metal cation and the number of unpaired electrons
    •  recognize that the magnetism of transition metal complexes and many of their colours arise from the d electrons
  • Metals in Biology
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  list the important molecular building blocks of living systems
    •  identify essential, toxic and medicinal elements
    •  explain the typical roles of metals in the body
    •  relate the medicinal uses of metals to their coordination chemistry
    •  recognize the role of coordination chemistry in drug design
  • Kinetics
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  determine the rate law from experimental data, including the rate constant and its units
    •  identify the reaction order from the rate law
    •  use the integrated rate law and half life for 1st order reactions
    •  recognize the effect of temperature on reaction rates and be able to use the Arrhenius equation in calculations
    •  recognize that chemical reactions result from multistep processes called reaction mechanisms
    •  recognize the role of activation energy and collision frequency in determining rates
    •  work out a rate law from a simple proposed mechanism
    •  draw reaction profile diagrams for multi-step reactions with appropriate activation energies and intermediates
    •  calculate Ea and A from the temperature variation of the rate constant
    •  know how catalysts effect the rate of reactions without altering equilibrium constants
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